Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity - for some common materials like steel, glass, wood ..

Tensile Modulus - Young's Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity - is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material. It is used to describe the elastic properties of objects like wires, rods or columns when they are stretched or compressed.

Tensile Modulus is defined as the

"ratio of stress (force per unit area) along an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over initial length) along that axis"

It can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object as long as the stress is less than the yield strength of the material.

MaterialTensile Modulus
(Young's Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity)
- E -
Ultimate Tensile Strength
- Su -
(106 N/m2, MPa)
Yield Strength
- Sy -
(106 N/m2, MPa)
(106  psi)(109 N/m2, GPa)
ABS plastics   1.4 - 3.1 40
Acetals 2.8 65
Acrylic   3.2 70
Aluminum Alloys 10.2
Antimony 11.3      
Beryllium (Be) 42  287    
Beryllium Copper 18.0
Bismuth 4.6      
Bone, compact   18 170
(compression)
Bone, spongy 76
Boron   3100
CAB 0.8
Cadmium 4.6      
Carbon nanotube, single-walled 1000+
Cast Iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48   170
Cellulose,  cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 80 - 240
Cellulose acetate, molded 12 - 58
Cellulose acetate, sheet 30 - 52
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 50
Chlorinated polyether 1.1 39
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) 2.9
Chromium 36      
Constantan   162 455-860
Concrete 17
Copper 17 117 220 70
Diamond (C)   1220
Douglas fir Wood   13 50
(compression)
Epoxy resins 3-2 26 - 85
Fiberboard, Medium Density 4
Flax fiber 58
Glass   50 - 90 50
(compression)
Glass reinforced polyester matrix 17
Gold 10.8  74    
Granite 52
Graphene 1000
Hemp fiber 35
Inconel 31
Iridium 75      
Iron 28.5  210    
Lead 2.0      
Magnesium metal (Mg) 6.4 45
Manganese 23      
Marble   15
MDF - Medium-density fiberboard 4
Mercury        
Molybdenum (Mo) 40  329    
Monel Metal 26
Nickel Silver 18.5
Nickel Steel 29
Niobium (Columbium) 15      
Nylon-6   2 - 4 45 - 90 45
Nylon-66 60 - 80
Oak Wood (along grain)   11
Osmium (Os) 80  550    
Phenolic cast resins 33 - 59
Phenol-formaldehyde molding compounds 45 - 52
Pine Wood (along grain)   9 40
Platinum 21.3      
Polyacrylonitrile, fibers 200
Polybenzoxazole 3.5
Polycarbonates   2.6 52 - 62
Polyethylene HDPE (high density)   0.8 15
Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET   2 - 2.7 55
Polyamide   2.5 85
Polyisoprene, hard rubber 39
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 2.4 - 3.4
Polyimide aromatics 3.1 68
Polypropylene, PP   1.5 - 2 28 - 36
Polystyrene, PS   3 - 3.5 30 - 100
Polytehylene, LDPE (low density) 0.11 - 0.45
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.4
Polyurethane cast liquid 10 - 20
Polyurethane elastomer 29  - 55
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 2.4 - 4.1
Potassium        
Rhodium 42      
Rubber, small strain   0.01 - 0.1
Sapphire 435
Selenium 8.4      
Silicon Carbide   450 3440
Silver 10.5      
Sodium        
Steel, High Strength Alloy ASTM A-514   760 690
Tantalum 27      
Teflon. PTFE 0.5
Thorium 8.5      
Tin 47
Titanium 16      
Tungsten (W)   400 - 410
Tungsten Carbide (WC)   450 - 650
Vanadium 19      
Wrought Iron   190 - 210    
Zinc 12  
  • 1 N/m2 = 1x10-6 N/mm2 = 1 Pa = 1.4504x10-4 psi
  • 1 psi (lb/in2) = 144 psf (lbf/ft2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2

Strain

Strain is "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as

ε = dL / L         (1)

where

ε = strain (m/m) (in/in)

dL = elongation or compression (offset) of the object (m) (in)

L = length of the object (m) (in)

Stress

Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as

σ = F / A         (2)

where

σ = stress (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi)

F = force (N) (lb)

A = area of object (m2) (in2)

  • tensile stress - stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material - acts normal to the stressed area
  • compressive stress - stress that tends to compress or shorten the material - acts normal to the stressed area
  • shearing stress - stress that tends to shear the material - acts in plane to the stressed area at right-angles to compressive or tensile stress

Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity

Young's modulus can be expressed as

E = stress / strain

   = (F / A) / (dL / L)         (3)

where

E = Young's modulus (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi)

  • named after the 18th-century English physician and physicist Thomas Young

Elasticity

Elasticity is a property of an object or material which will restore it to its original shape after distortion.

A spring is an example of an elastic object - when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. This restoring force is in general proportional to the stretch described by Hooke's Law.

Hooke's Law

One property of elasticity is that it takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That linear dependence of displacement upon stretching force is called Hooke's law which can be expressed as

Fs = -k dL         (4)

where

Fs = force in the spring (N)

k = spring constant (N/m)

dL = elongation of the spring (m)

Yield strength

Yield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering as the amount of stress that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic deformation.

Ultimate Tensile Strength

The Ultimate Tensile Strength - UTS - of a material is the limit stress at which the material actually breaks, with sudden release of the stored elastic energy.